Anabolic steroids are synthetic derivatives of the androgen (male hormone) testosterone that are majorly used by cliniciansand athletes. “Anabolism” is a biosynthetic processwhich uses energy to differentially retain nitrogen in lean body mass, either through prompting protein synthesis and/or lowering the breakdown of protein in the body. Androgens are also known to exert their effects in areas other than the reproductive tissues, such as muscle, bone, hair follicles in the skin, liver, kidneys, and the haematopoietic, immune and central nervous systems.
Exploitation of each available resource to enhance one’s physical appearance has been an age old practise amongst humans. With the advances in medicine,drugs became an easiersource toaugment physical performance and have been in use ever since. In the present day, individuals both athletes and non-athletestrickling down to collegiate, high school, and even junior high levels continue to employ a wide range of substances, including anabolic- steroids, in the hope of enhancing their performance and appearance. These enable athletes to keep lean tissue due to their high anabolic potential.Steroids have been used to treat a host of conditions clinically as well, which includes several forms of anaemia, wounds and burns, protein-calorie malnutrition, severe burns, osteoporosis. Several derivatives of testosterone are also aimed to be used against Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and even prostate cancer in men or hirsuitism in women.
Common anabolic steroids
Anabolic steroids preparations generally involve the modifications of androgens so as to minimize their androgenic properties and make them purely anabolic for promoting fat-free muscle synthesis.Numerous steroids have successfullymade their way as pharmaceutical preparations in the market worldwide, for example, methandienone, methyltestosterone, oxandrolone and stanozolol. Some of the preparations of oxandrolonehave gained more fame because of their use by sports competitors and bodybuilders in particular while some others like boldenone and trenbolone are restricted to veterinary purposes only.Oxandrolone has an indirect way of action wherein it helps promote anabolism by triggering the production of testosterone in the body. Often doctors prescribe this steroid along with other medicines to compensate for the weight loss caused by surgery, injury, infection or any other medical conditions. Oxandrolone owes its reputation to the wide range of functions it performs as an anabolic agent.
Administration and mechanism of action
Oxandrolone is commercially available as tablets and is administered orally while some others are administered by means of intramuscular injections also.These particularly exert their effects by binding to androgen receptors on the cells, stimulating production of RNA,eventually increasing rate of protein synthesis. Not only are these drugs known to have anabolic actions, they also show significant anticatabolic effect.Oxandrolone acts by increasing an athlete’s aggressiveness and leads to gain in strength, produces euphoria, or lessenone’s sense of fatigue during training which together enables athletes to keep lean tissue.
As Hippocrates said, “Everything in excess is opposed to nature” similarly profligate use of anabolic steroids may have adverse effects and the users must be aware of such fallouts common amongst which are increase in sexual drive, incidence of acne vulgaris, increased body hair and increment of aggressive behaviour hence a moderation in doses is the key to best results.